A study to compare non-tobacco based nicotine pouches with traditional Swedish snus found that both products cause lesions in the oral mucosa. This study also investigated how snus affects the production of cytokines.
Lesions in oral mucosa caused by non-tobacco-based nicotine products
A recent study examined the effects of non-tobacco-based nicotine products on oral mucosa. Participants were given non-tobacco-based nicotine snus products instead of regular tobacco-containing snus for a six-week period. The study results showed that non-tobacco-based nicotine products reduced the incidence of oral lesions.
Participants were evaluated at baseline, two and four weeks, and six weeks after their first visit. Each visit included a clinical examination of the oral cavity. The study team examined the mucosa of each participant's mouth for oral lesions. They noted any changes in lesions, including gingival retractions.
Lesions associated with smokeless tobacco are most likely to disappear after cessation of use. These lesions usually occur on the upper and lower lips and are characterized by whitish or red striations. Treatment involves quitting smoking or stopping use of snuff or other non-tobacco-based nicotine products.
Non-tobacco-based nicotine products are safe for healthy participants and are well tolerated. Participants reported minimal to no adverse effects during the study, with the exception of gingival blisters, which were graded as moderate. The study also found that lesions associated with snus use regress after cessation of use.
In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of chronic periodontitis, which affects nearly half of smokers. Tobacco smoke is also an important risk factor for oral cancer.
Lesions caused by traditional Swedish snus
A new study has examined whether the consumption of nicotine pouches and traditional Swedish suppository cigarettes causes less lesions in young adults than smoking cigarettes. The study included twenty-four adult snus and cigarette users. The study was conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki, Good Clinical Practice, and the European Union Clinical Trials Directive. It involved a screening visit, 5-days of confinement, and a telephone call a week after the subjects stopped using the products.
Snus use among young people is on the rise in the Nordic countries. This problem is likely to become more severe with the emergence of nicotine pouches containing high nicotine levels. This product is particularly marketed towards young users and, because border controls in neighbouring countries are lacking, it is widespread.
A large number of descriptive studies have described the link between snuff use and oral lesions. Five of these studies involved a total of 252 construction workers. Two other studies investigated the prevalence of snuff-induced lesions among adolescents and adults in Sweden.
Nicotine-containing snus is not allowed in the European Union, but in Sweden and Norway it is legal to use. Since it is legal in Sweden and Norway, this product has increased in popularity among younger people. In fact, it is now the most popular type of tobacco use among young people in those countries.